Turkish carpets and kilims are among the most well-known and oldest handicrafts in the world as hand-woven or plain weaving. Historically: religion in Central Asia, cultural, environmental, socio-political and socio-economic conditions prevalent useful needs in many communities and ethnic groups in Central Asia and Turkey, and artistic inspiration occur in today's modern include but Turkey's field also especially Turkish peoples living in the east of Anatolia.
Although the great nomad emerged from the traditions of the Turkish peoples, the Turkish carpet, like the Acem carpet, began to be produced in order to give and export to the palaces in the large workshops by taking a multi-faceted urban view in the Seljuk era. In the period of the early Ottoman Empire, many design types had reached maturity and most of today's modern production is particularly suitable for the style of that period in order to export. The carpets and kilims of Turk (also known as Anatolia) are produced in different and unique species in many regions of Anatolia. The important differentiating properties among these species are: the material used, the method of production, the patterns and the motif, the geography, the cultural identity and the purpose of its use.
What is an Oriental Rug?
The word oriental means related with the east, that which comes from the east.
The main reason for the term ‘oriental rug’ having become widespread is the fact that the carpet culture commenced 2500 years ago in Central Asia and the art of carpet making spread from there to the rest of the world. Since this art form came to being among Turkic tribes and those tribes lived a nomadic lifestyle within time this art form spread through the lands of Iran, Caucasus, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and China. The art form lived on with many additions and contribution from the people of all of these lands.
The groups of the above mentioned lands are defined as ‘oriental’ have given life to rugs by motifs and colors inspired by their regional culture and the stories, events of their time. They have woven with such ingenuity that the words ‘oriental’ and ‘rugs’ have become somewhat inseparable.
Every color and motif an oriental rug carries reflect a feeling, event or thought in the time of its making. Even though carpet making has long been comercial it is so engraved in the eastern culture that it has taken its place in the rituals, art and traditions of the east.
Oriental Rug Knots
Asymmetrical knot also known as the Persian knot.
Ghiordes knot also known as the Turkish knot.
Nippon knot is only used on Chinese rugs. The rugs made using this knot are in the group of handmade rugs even though in reality they do not contain knots in their structure. While Turkish and Persian rugs are made in 3 - 12 months it takes 1 - 2 months to make the rugs using the Nippon knot.
Oriental Rug Weaving Regions
Oriental rugs differ in colors, motifs and patterns depending on the region they were made.
Some of Turkish Rug types:
Gordes Rug, Kula Rug, Mucur Rug, Ladik Rug, Bergama Rug, Bandirma Rug, Oushak Rug, Milas Rug, Yoruk Rug, Hereke Rug.
It is more accurate to group Persian Rugs according to the regions they are made in.
North: Tabriz Rug, Heriz Rug, Gorevan Rug, Bidjar Rug
South: Qashqai, Kerman, Keshan, Kiraz, Bakhtiari, İsphahan, Goshgan
West: Sena, Ferahan, Sarouk, Sultanabad, Mahal, Hamadan, Mir, Mosul, Gerus, Sereband, Kermanshah
East: Horasan, Kain, Meshed, Herat
Caucasian rugs take their name after the region they are made in, Caucasus. This land stretches through the plains between the Caspian Sea and Black Sea in the north, and Iran in the south. The types of rugs that are encountered can be grouped geographically as follows:
North: Derbend Rug, Daghestan Rug, Kazak Rug, Kuba Rug, Lezgi Rug
South: Gendje Rug, Shirvan Rug, Karabagh Rug, Senneh Rug, Talish Rug, Verneh Rug
Central Asia Rugs
West: Hive Rug, Tashkent Rug, Beshir Rug, Buhara Rug, Afghanistan Rug, Belucistan Rug
East: Samarkand Rug, Kashkar Rug
There are no written sources on the history of Chinese Rugs, so a lot of academic knowledge rests on guess work. These rugs use different kinds of silk threads and the knot they use is either the Persian knot or the Nippon knot unique to Chinese rugs. Khotan and Tibetan rugs are widely known types of Chinese rugs.
Are there other types of Rugs named independent of their regions?
It is possible to find rugs named and grouped in other ways than their regions. These are unique cases. Renaissance painter Hans Holbein painted the famous Oushak rugs of his era and these rugs were categorized after the painter’s name and they are still known as ‘Holbein Rugs’. Similarly another renaissance painter, Lorenzo Lotto gave the ‘Lotto Rugs’ their name by using them extensively in his paintings.
What kind of design situations call for Oriental Rugs?
Oriental rugs are an inseparable design element of classic homes especially in living rooms and dining rooms. Oriental rugs add to the elegance and refined taste of classic designs. As classical decor strives to create a certain feel of nostalgia by using design elements and artifacts of the past, oriental rugs are a natural fit to such environments.
Oriental Rugs today
Today, the term ‘oriental rugs’ brings into mind the producers of these exquisite works of art while having succeeded in producing them in large amounts by turning this branch of craft into an industry and preserved the traditional methods and knowledge that has accumulated through millenia. These countries are Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Tibet and China. It is widely known that in the recent years producers in China have created imitations of rugs native to other regions. Turkish and Persian rugs are at the top of the list. The most recent example of this is the signature Turkish rug known as ‘Hereke’ being imitated in a town they named Hereke and produced lower quality versions of these rugs in China